The CERN1 Council, where the representatives of the 19 Member States of the Organization decide on scientific programmes and financial resources, held its 106th session on 20 December under the chairmanship for the last time of Prof. Hubert Curien (F).
Green light for LHC in 2005
Council decided by consensus that the LHC Project shall be completed in a single stage and planning shall proceed on the basis that the LHC shall be commissioned in 2005. The project was originally approved in December 1994 as a two-stage project completed in 2008. However Council stated that if sufficient interest and financial commitment was forthcoming from Non-Member States, the project could be completed in one stage. There has been great enthusiasm for LHC shown by Non-Member States with considerable commitment of financial resources.
- Japan has already made a generous contribution of 5 billion Yen and relations between CERN and Japan are developing well (see next heading).
- An agreement was signed in March 1996 with India providing for a contribution to the LHC accelerator with a net value for CERN of $ 12.5 million.
- An agreement was signed with Russia in June 1996 which provides for a contribution to the LHC accelerator and detectors, each with net values for CERN of 67 million Swiss Francs.
- An agreement has been signed with Canada, allowing for an in-kind contribution to the LHC with a value of $ 30 million Canadian.
- As a result of the negotiations which have taken place with CERN and US officials, Council approved the text of a cooperation agreement outlining a contribution to the LHC accelerator from the Department of Energy (DOE) and a contribution from the DOE and the National Science Foundation (NSF) to the ATLAS and CMS experiments, totalling $530 million.
CERN's Director General, Prof Llewellyn Smith, said he was delighted with this important decision, "it is a very major step forward for CERN, European science, and world particle physics."
Second Japanese contribution to LHC
At the meeting the Japanese Delegation announced that the Japanese cabinet had approved that same day a further contribution to the LHC project of 3.85 billion yen (approx. 44 million Swiss Francs), subject to the approval by the Diet, saying : "The Japenese government hopes that this decision substantially contributes to the success of future work at this famous research centre." Prof. Hubert Curien, President of CERN Council, thanked Mr Mashida warmly, "this contribution is an important step both financially and psychologically in the progress of international scientific collaboration."
In August 1996 a CERN Member State proposed a reduction in its contribution to the CERN annual budget. The other Member States decided that any reduction should be general and, taking into consideration discussions in meetings in September and November, Council agreed that funding for the LHC project will be preserved as foreseen when the project was approved, albeit with a reduction in the Member States' annual contributions to the Organization of 7.5% in 1997, 8.5% in 1998-2000, and 9.3% in 2001 and thereafter, compared to the level foreseen in December 1994.
The Director-General explained that manpower and expenditure for LHC would be untouched but such reductions in budget would be difficult for CERN.
Council agreed that the CERN Management should be given freedom of the cash management of the LHC project, allowing completion of payment up to 2008. Council also decided that it will make every effort to ensure that the ordinary contributions from each Member State during the period 1997-2008 will not fall below the level implied by its above decisions and encouraged additional contributions to enhance the vitality of the general scientific programme during the LHC construction period.
Director General's Report
Professor Llewellyn Smith made his annual review of the activities of the Laboratory. He started by congratulating CERN's staff and users for making 1996 another record breaking year. All the accelerators produced record performances, and the start-up of LEP2 went smoothly, taking the collision energy to 172 GeV by the end of the year.
In discussing physics achievements, the Director-General concentrated on major programmes which closed in 1996. The Omega spectrometer, which has been in operation for 25 years, and seen 50 important experiments. The LEAR programme which this year made the spectacular discovery of anti hydrogen and excellent results from the Crystal Barrel experiment which have led to the existence of the glueball being general accepted by the international physics community. The muon programme has shown that all is not well understood inside the proton. He described the closure of these facilities as "sad news, but the price we must pay for the LHC." Turning to on-going programmes, he highlighted the success of the heavy-ion experiments, which are showing real hints that a new form of matter is being created, and to LEP2, which produced its first W bosons and is on schedule to have the world's best measurements of these important particles within a year or two.
In concluding, the Director-General, again applauded staff and users for their achievements, but expressed reservations for the future, saying that with the continuing run down in resources, such performances cannot be guaranteed.
Personnel budget for 1997
As requested by Committee of Council in November 1996 CERN Management presented proposals for reducing next year's personnel budget. It was agreed to implement reduction in take-home pay equivalent to 2.5% of the basic salary. In compensation staff will receive 5.5 additional days of leave to be taken according to the needs of the Organization. It was also agreed to launch an internal study of the current salary structure and career structure in 1997.
Hubert Curien ends mandate as President of Council
Prof. Luciano Maiani, who takes over as President of CERN Council as of 1 January 1997, paid tribute to the contribution made to CERN by the outgoing President of Council, Hubert Curien. He thanked him for his grasp of problems and his ability to find a solution in complex situations. The Director-General echoed his sentiments congratulating Prof. Curien for his essential contribution in the approval of the LHC and in the fruitful discussions with Non-Member States.
Prof. Fernando Barreiro (Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain) was appointed as a member of the Scientific Policy Committee for 3 years from 1 January 1997.
New Division Leaders
Dr A. Scaramelli is appointed leader of the Technical Support division (ST) for two and a half years as from 1 July 1997. Dr A. De Rujula is appointed leader of the Theory Division (TH) for two and a half years as from 1 July 1997.
Senior Management of CERN as from 1 January 1997
Director General : C. Llewellyn Smith (GB)
Director LHC Project : L. Evans (GB)
Director of Research : L. Foà (IT)
Director of Accelerators : K. Hübner (AT)
Director of Administration : M. Robin (FR)
Technical and Research Director : H. Wenninger (DE)
Division Leaders :
Administrative Support (AS) : J. Ferguson (GB)
Information Technology (IT) : J. May (DE)
Electronics and Computing for Physics (ECP) : M. Turala (PL)
Engineering Support and Technologies (EST) : D. Güsewell (DE)
Finance (FI) : A. Naudi (CH/GB)
Large Hadron Collider (LHC) : J-P. Gourber (FR)
Particle Physics Experiments (PPE) : G. Goggi (IT)
Personnel (PE) : B. Angerth (SE)
Proton Synchrotron (PS) : D. Simon (FR)
SPS + LEP (SL) : K. Kissler (DE)
Supplies, Procurement and Logistics (SPL) : R. Perin (IT)
Technical Inspection & Safety Commission (TIS) : H. Schönbacher (AT)
Technical Support (ST) : F. Ferger (DE)
: 1 July 1997 : A. Scaramelli (IT)
Theory (TH) : G. Veneziano (IT)
: 1 July 1997 : A. De Rujula (ES)
1. CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, has its headquarters in Geneva. At present, its Member States are Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, the Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. Israel, Japan, the Russian Federation, Turkey, the European Commission and Unesco have observer status.